We are living in an age in which all governments, regardless of the system of political and economic organization, whether interventionistic, socialistic, democratic or dictatorial, tend to occupy an economic command post. I think it’s difficult unless the disparity is stricken-off in class system and the moment class-system is eliminated, economic command post will disappear itself.
History has been the worlds’ live witness and testimony in the assessment of post global political scenarios. Albeit those systems remained initially very successful, then by the passage of time and possible progression, its basic values and variables were changed; fell weakened and finally failed. Historians often examined such era in term of its duration and post era historic and dialectical analysis.
Nevertheless the human mind has always been busy exploring new horizons for its social, cultural, and economic needs, as these need based intellectual debates and philosophies do continue to illuminate new understanding of the perceptions for socio-political and cultural conditions while in changing dimension of human consciousness. It can be argued that do the criteria and scales also change in the process of evolution. Yes, it is assumed when human principles and emotional configurations are changed; new ideas do flow in immediately to fill the gap in social and political structure.
Until yesterday the Imperial colonialism was rocking over the world through different colonisers from the Europe continent. The pioneer founder of the colonialism used to say that “the sun never sets in Great Britain.” Then, in the eighteenth century, the augur public opinion transformed itself into Revolution of France. Rousseau laid the foundation of revolution which later Carl Marx’s towering intellect brought neo-dimensions in its philosophy at intellectual level illuminating it, as called Marxism which later engulfed a large part of the world.
Foremost thought Rousseau perceived was to prove human “rights” and professed the ideal democratic political structure and society whereas Carl Marx did extended it by discarding the evil of capital and promising a philosophy based on dialectical materialism and scientific socialism paved to end the disparity in class system by snatching and bringing back these “rights” (economical-social-political) from the Imperialists as earlier those were being given as a charity to proletarians housed in the monopolies of global capitalist system with imperial mentality to keep them as slaves only.
Prior to the French Revolution, the global methods of politics were mostly based on decomposed religions added by treacherous fascism, causing the social units to be chained in extreme poverty and marginalized slavery. The two philosophers put their hands on the pulse of their covenant and gave the humanity with new heavenly books, such as “The Social Contract” and “The Capital,” respectively. They both changed the world with new philosophical narrative based on equal human, economic and social rights eliminating disparity in class system by evaporating economic command post which had become a symbol of political power as an epicentre.
While Rousseau was called the spiritual father of the French Revolution, Karl Marx was entitled the founder of the Communist ideology, which later lead by Lenin in the modern Soviet Union. There might be quite different debate as to why the USSR communist revolution failed at the governmental level despite such a practicable giant ideology rocked centuries driven global imperialism.
The intensity with which Communism came to the Soviet Union after the revolution is part of the history. But not utilizing Marx’s pragmatic essence in its true context while replacing the long imperialist-mind-set of ruling society including proletarians who for centuries deprived from their socio-economic rights were put under a bureaucratic subjugation. Thus that previously ruined society instead to enjoy the benefits of Marxism was again put under the restructuring and openness theories and these being as the rival capitalistic tools named ‘Glasnost’ and ‘Perestroika’ ignited by Brezhnev later promoted by Gorbachev lead to final defeat of the USSR.
Thus in 1991 the Soviet Union was disbanded into several small sovereign independent entities leaving behind a country named as Russian Federation. Though despite of the fact that Lenin and Stalin both had revolutionized the Russian society with Communist Party manifesto together with public struggle, yet the defeat of the entire political system was reasoned by not exerting communal poise and conformity with the true ideology which was essential to form a government eliminating disparity in class system under Marxism. Thus it can be said that Marxism did not fail but Stalinism collapsed.
After the end of the WWII, every two political systems (Communism and Capitalism) by using their unilateral power ignited Cold War with the intention to strengthen their perspective strategic expansion in the First, Second and Third Worlds assumed to ensure global peace. Communism anyway remained restricted in Russian Federation, a part of Latin America and a few of Asian countries including China blended with a different perspective. Whereas the capitalism with the power of its forceful strength of developed countries did spread its mighty arms’ shadow over the whole world through its market economy and consumerism ideology. That at the beginning of 21st century began to fall prey to its own evilly internalizing postmodern crusade towards human basic needs under the guise of cutthroat antagonism in the market economy by cartelising the global financial market.
So today despite enjoying nuclear, space and other technological uphold by the selective part of the world, the capitalism’s inborn irrationality and variances in global cutthroat race lead concentration of wealth into few hands, resulting dissimilation within the system, that disastrously backfired as global recession by creating enough gap attracting another philosophical theory for human betterment.
Apparently it is said that there is no flaw in the practicable law of powerful capitalistic politics thought-through world known democracy. Nevertheless, the main cause of its failure at the veracity based intellect level is to negate human values and dignity before the capital. Given the premier rank to the capital itself in the system, natural life is removed from mankind spectrum sacrificing human equality and parity due to the concentration of capital in a few political hands enjoying fascism under cover of democratic face holding economic command post. Such unwarranted trend, the world is being faced postmodern chaos. And now, the intellectualism hive complexity claimed by neo-liberalism leading the global society to an agitated deadly end.
In the context of the above-discussed brief historical journey that spanned over almost two centuries, and the postmodern neo-liberal environment at the beginning of the 21st century, the implied global unifying force pushed the global establishment into the Arab Spring in the Middle East and part of North Africa and War on terror (9/11) resulting the loss of a large size of the commodity profit letting air the fear of possible deadliest global recession.
In the sixties a concept that emerged initially in Africa called as neo-colonialism. As to the people neo-colonialism is an indirect form of control by global powers through cultural and economic means. It signifies an indirect continuation of colonial policies under the guise of achieving more freedom. African thinker Kwame Nkrumah in his book Neo-colonialism has plainly elaborated this philosophy.
So turning into economy based politics (neo-colonialism), the global policies transpired inborn negative and unconstructive affects in capitalizing the western philosophy of globalization itself. Capital world had no choice but to continue with the aftermath of the global migration attacks from the third world, albeit it has been a respiratory effect to its industrial world, yet it developed internal strong political voice of nationalism and anti-globalization within the western society, which in retaliation brought the world to the brink of economic and social catastrophe.
In fact, postmodernism is a logical consequence of post WWII fantasies. After the war postmodern thinkers made no attempt to understand the social and cultural sceptre, as their academic work was though unrestricted in existing critical theories, yet they created just new spikes within the earlier content. The basic crate of post modernity is that postmodernists did not work on finding the new paths for humanity apt atmosphere. By not generating a towering paradigm against Grand Narrative was another failure. They only developed larger statements within and beyond the metaphors of philosophies of Grand Narrative as a supportive symbol with multifaceted preferred privileges’ resulting negative applicability of the theories by perplexing its structural body through harangue at academic levels.
Therefore, it would not be premature to say how important was to look at these factors while progressive thinkers rescued the insatiable change in new phenomena to see if there really exit a gap that new perceptions could fill it up. It is also important to find the answer as to why societies standing at the challenges’ escalator of proletariat and resources that did not change so far and weakened in fact. In this regard, Gramsci tried to find this question in his hegemony proffer while other Marxists did also try to seek the answer. That was how in the second half of the twentieth century, the western philosophers and postmodernists like lyotard made a re-attempt to understand the upper structure of the global society in his book Post Modern Condition Thus the commoditization of society has once again brought the class consciousness on the surface with a force to find new pedestal.
Post WWII, the world faced strong waves of independence and several countries were set independent as sovereign units besides emerging of new states on the face of globe. So in order to have political access over these earlier colonised countries of third world new methods were thoughtfully evoked by applying indirect political meddling to protect colonisers’ economic interests.
By introduction of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000 (A paper for Africa) the United Nations aimed at reducing poverty, hunger, illiteracy, gender inequality and correcting some developmental malfunctions, was received with mixed feelings from development experts especially regarding its 15-year target for Africa. Some scholars were of the opinion that the MDGs were a huge failure in most, if not all the countries in Africa and Asia. Others however, recorded considerable progress in developing countries.
Deploying data from secondary sources, a study, which in a retrospective learns, brings into recognition that while the implementation of the MDGs was a good idea, it do not reflect Africa’s development stance outright. This paper analyses each goal with substantial examples, and contends that the MDGs were an indirect way of making developing countries depend on the West. The paper recommends that Africa has to make a demarcation between its economy and that of the Western world.
The characteristics of this new theory based on the capitalism revealed transforming the cruelty of colonial thinking around the world into neo-colonialism just as a blend of old wine in a new bottle where the wealth of the these poor countries are seized by economic sanctions and restrictions. This sort of global development irked the people of the third world especially from the second world, whose persistent resistance to capitalist world has continuingly been weakening it.
In such deteriorating global economic western scenario and emerging billions of people under the UN line of poverty in Asia, Africa, Latin America and eastern part of Europe, progressive minds tend to abandon capitalism and compelled again to rethink the philosophy of socialism which has ultimately a solution for the mankind at least to the extent of curbing class system economic command post as an capitalistic epicentre.
Thus the People’s Republic of China, based on Mao’s philosophy, which was primarily driven by communism, kept the state fibre in line with its cultural, ecological, and historical heritage, based entirely on human performance and needs, has come forward with new indigenous economic policy to fill the philosophical gap which anyway has developed as discussed in above. The primary methodology lies in relationship between state and its citizen was linked to individual practical support and proportionate needs were taken care of under the new rules.
However, in order to keep population pressure relatively low to sustain the growth rate, they leveraged the thought of financial participation in small businesses on performance-based criterion at the individual level. In other words, the conditional permission of private ownership to a certain level at the grassroots is permitted to keep the economy rate progressive. Thus the form of communal economy experienced in old Soviet Union was somewhat avoided keeping the identical social nucleus. The biggest advantage of this step was that the hawks could not focus on the lower levels of authority. The concentrated journey of the capital flow was kept towards the upper state national exchequer and the needs were taken care of at the grassroots by local progression.
To meet the small personal financial needs, the state did take responsibility for setting a certain level of private income, which respected personal freedom as well. Similarly, in international trade, state-owned companies were attracted to bear capital investments in foreign countries, where private small and medium companies began to develop trading volumes at their level raising specific private profit rates in domestic commodity production. Thus, China’s socialist market economy is ranked now first on the global scene in terms of purchase-power parity and second in terms of volume.
The setbacks already faced in the global market economy and consumerization as discussed above created a wide range of class structure and social gaps around the globe. So Republic of China, an emerging global pyramid of new economic power, having been follower of one of the Asia’s leading philosophers Confucius and Buddha’s aesthetic and cultural contributions, came up with the new economic political system with logical and an innovative socialist philosophy that would supplement the existing socialist thoughts behind their success of political and social system.
The first thought of this philosophy was conceived by Chinese in 2013. Primarily it was designed for Asia, but later expanded its scope in 2019 by adding some African and European countries as well. The vision was to make economic development through sharing-basis possibility by meeting infrastructural needs of participating countries in addition to cultural and social partnership as well. In that process infrastructure would be the first requirement to connect partaking countries.
China has not named to this political and socioeconomic system, as it’s the preliminary design tabled currently within Asia and Africa. Right now one may call this idea anti-colonialist with a notion of neo-socialism. However to call it neo socialist doctrine in view of its structural and economic features might better explain it.
Followings are some of the key points of the ‘Emerging Socialist Doctrine on which it is seeking to be established.
Individualism (1): One of the classic nucleus social features of ancient China has been the philosophy of indigenise or individualism. This background is called the classic Chinese philosophy, under which every Chinese is a full-fledged unit in its individual capacity and physical state, which is integrated into society and becomes the force of cohesion.
Slavery protection: In the quest for the safest society, individual heroism often promotes slavery. In this way, the hero-emperors’ power override the rights of others, assuming every false to be true’ in their own interest. The safest society, under the rule of law, eliminates this evil and let individual unit’s indulgence liberate mentally and practically from economic slavery.
Neo Confucianism and Buddhism (2): The vital part of the morals is only applicable within the society of Republic of China. Keeping religion at a certain distance, confining the religious teaching of Confucianism and Buddhism to the personal functioning of individuals as a unit social activity is the foremost term of this philosophy. Every religion has got its cultural preference instead of rituals. This philosophy holds the status of reprehensible law in recent China. In Neo-Confucianism, all the Ancient classical values of China that were culturally embedded have undergone modern cosmopolitanism for the restoration of nature in search of natural life and the universe. This scientific approach the integration of nature with the modern human individual and collective needs are termed a positive process of establishing of scientific and human interaction beyond geographical boundaries. (This is the journey from globalization to neo-globalization, which the West is now denying under neo-liberalism).
Shen Dao’s Philosophy (2): The key to this philosophy is the importance of adopting its cosmological narrative focussing on use of talent of individual and its positional power with his legal mind as source, deriving from China’s leading philosopher Shen Dao (350-275 BC). A separate book is needed to present Shen Dao’s narrative statement.
The Dark Aspects of Liberalism: Elite Vs Proletarian is a subject signifying the darker aspects of liberalism while experiencing the difficulties that the democracy has faced in the Elitists’ world, especially in developing countries where basic rights and needs are still to liberate. The education, health, employment, social relations and the establishment of institutions and to enable the collective implementation of a crime-free society are subjugated by Elitism.
Brief democratic & economic freedom: This is the key pinnacle on which modern China is founded. The class system in the political structure is eliminated and the unit has the appropriate economic freedom and living, prioritizing the gathering of society based on ancient cultural trends by applying the laws based on the scientific foundation of the family system.
In the said political backdrop, the People’s Republic of China adopted the selective market economy modules in the form of a new social hierarchy today which has been discussed as listed above. In this process the market economy is no longer profitable unilaterally like the capitalist arrangement, but as a new theory of Socially Shared Economy (SSE). “One Belt One Road” is the best example of SSE under an agreement with the 60 most would-be powerful countries in the world under partnership have been taken up.
On the other hand the Capitalist world in the past two decade from the beginning of 9/11, has travelled from globalization to anti-globalization with phenomenal features appeared within their own society and globally towards nationalism leading slightly to racism. Some of the top leaders of the Western world have been very vocal in media on this anti-globalization movement that basically ignited from neo-liberalism exposing their anti-immigrant policy including Brexit etc. Adapting to the neo-liberalism by United States, in the recent days of pandemic crises, has been out rightly knocked-off by renowned scholar Noam Chomsky saying as “One lesson is that another colossal failure of the neo-liberalism version of capitalism.” (4)
In view of above deliberations, one may foresee a new political doctrine that would help future to restore world peace through social, cultural and economic sharing contracts.
Cultural bondage by increasing its magnitude with neighbouring countries into the chain of this modern philosophy has unveiled the significance of this thinking. They will share SSE and socialize people to people within partner-countries which would certainly promise strong economic ties of the future, where absolute elimination of terrorism is also pledged. With countries’ linkage to each other’s economic and geopolitical social interests terrorism will fade out mechanically enhancing social protection factor.
The asserted aspect though would preclude disparity in the socialist essence and carries the defeat of neo-colonialism within the ambit of neo-liberalism, strengthening major part of the globe in their self-reliant economies. Nevertheless the fear-factor of the neo-socialist colonialism / expansionism cannot be override in this theory until it becomes apparent manifestation of the People’s Republic of China role at the outset of its implementation.
However, in that case, it can be termed as a parallel system of socialist neo-colonialism in order to equilibrate the existing capitalistic western unitary power. However, one believes that the motive of benevolence, so dear to empiricist morality, is a species of mere inclination, and therefore morally neutral.
Following are the links/ papers and critical work which have been consulted during the course of writing of this essay besides continuous study of Chinese (OBOR) media news etc.
Individualism in Classic Chinese thoughts
Chinese political Philosophy edited by Shaojin Chai
- https://www.euractiv.com/section/economy-jobs/interview/chomsky-on-covid-19-the-latest-massive-failure-of-neoliberalism/ Noam Chomsky interview to Ms Cristina Magdalena on 25th April, 2020 published at Euractiv.com